Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater for human use.
The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.
A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs. Halving the per capita of global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security, and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy.
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
|Goals and targets (from the 2030 Agenda)||Indicators|
|12.1 Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries||12.1.1 Number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies|
|12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources||
12.2.1 Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP
12.2.2 Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP
|12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses||12.3.1 Global food loss index|
|12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment||
12.4.1 Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement
12.4.2 Hazardous waste generated per capita and proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment
|12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse||12.5.1 National recycling rate, tons of material recycled|
|12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle||12.6.1 Number of companies publishing sustainability reports|
|12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities||12.7.1 Number of countries implementing sustainable public procurement policies and action plans|
|12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature||12.8.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment|
|12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production||12.a.1 Amount of support to developing countries on research and development for sustainable consumption and production and environmentally sound technologies|
|12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products||12.b.1 Number of sustainable tourism strategies or policies and implemented action plans with agreed monitoring and evaluation tools|
|12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities||12.c.1 Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuels|